Michael Martin reasons as follows:

(1) In terms of our experience, all created entities of the kinds we have so far examined are created by one or more beings with bodies. [Empirical evidence]

(2) The universe is a created entity. [Supposition]

(2a) If the universe is a created entity, then it is of the same kind as the created entities we have so far examined. [Empirical evidence]

[Probably]
(3) The universe was created by one or more beings with bodies. [From (1), (2), and (2a) by predictive inference]

(4) If the theistic God exists, then the universe was not created by a being with a body. [Analytic truth]

[Therefore]
(5) The theistic God does not exist. [From (3) and (4) by modus tollens] (203)

In an analogous manner Martin “proves” that there must likely have been multiple creators, fallible, finite, and working with preexisting matter. In other words, if there is a God, then He is very much like a committee of human beings aided perhaps with superior technology.

Now this is a good argument. St. Thomas’ first question on the nature of God is: “Whether God is a body?” He starts his inquiry as if a complete novice in philosophy, even a primitive superstitious savage. But he does not, unlike Martin, end there.

Thus, Martin writes:

Premise (1) does not assume that all created entities are created by one or more beings with bodies.

It simply says that, as far as we can tell from our experience, all created entities of the kind we have so far examined are created by one or more beings with bodies. (203-4)

But the universe is not a “created entity” among many others; rather, it is everything that has been made. By “examining” it most generally, we can prove that God is disembodied or, more precisely, with a body that is materially simple and efficiently free.

Premise (2a) is therefore false upon further investigation.


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