Evolution is the name of a physical process by which biological organisms develop new features. It proposes that a present complex structure Y developed from a more primitive structure X in the past (in fact, over millions or billions of years) over a great many generations, because it conferred upon a creature some advantage in its survival and reproduction. But what evidence is there that X ever existed?

Mills gives us a familiar defense:

For within Nature, we find eyes in all stages of development. We find lifeforms with:

(1) no eyes at all,
(2) eyes that sense only the presence or absence of light,
(3) eyes that focus light extremely poorly, such as the mole’s,
(4) eyes that cannot see more than a few feet,
(5) eyes that cannot see color, such as most dog’s breeds,
(6) eyes that are humanlike, and
(7) eyes that are far superior to human eyes, such as the bald eagle’s.

He concludes:

Within Nature, we find a smooth and unbroken continuum of visual capabilities among the various animals species.

What good is 50% of an eye? It enjoys a decided advantage over 49% or 37% or 8% in the struggle for survival. (112)

Unfortunately, this conclusion is flat-out false. The issue is not “visual capabilities” but the specified complexity of different species’ eyes, and regarding those, there are huge gaps.

Darwinian evolution is supposed to proceed via “by numerous, successive, slight modifications.” But no kind of eye, regardless of its capacity, can bridge the gap to a superior form without going through a myriad of intermediate stages in its biological structure that are not only useless but a serious burden in its owner’s struggle for survival.

And that goes not just for eyes but for an enormous variety of biological structures that are best described as biomechanical or biochemical machines. An emergence of an irreducibly complex robot of any kind via random mutation + natural selection has never been observed. But such robots are routinely produced via intelligent design. Reason suggests that the latter is the best explanation of their existence.


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