The general motto of the state is: “Let them hate, so long as they fear.”

Seen in this light without any illusions, the state can hardly encourage moral growth directly, other than in the sense that fear of punishment is a stepping stone to internalization of norms and sense of duty and ultimately to charity.

The state can also help a society out of a prisoner’s dilemma in which everyone’s dominant strategy is to be unjust which puts them into a suboptimal equilibrium. Threatening punishment (ideally simply to be avoided by all) fixes the problem.


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